kadde=S S act, do a task
kadde-kadde=A=O A help O

Kadde is an intransitive verb meaning ‘act, do something, perform a task, work’, with the person or thing acting as the subject. The task or action is not named as an object. If it must be specified, it would be marked with ne. A companion would also be marked with ne. A beneficiary of the action can be marked with du.

Kadde can incorporate nouns that specify the type of task. Jede-kadde ‘do a game, play’ is common. Here a companion in play is marked with ne. In contrast, a co-locution like gehe kadde, which could be interpreted as ‘behave’ is not considered to be a verb phrase, as gehe here really modifies the entire clause ‘act well’.

The reduplicated form kadde-kadde specifically means ‘help’ and is transitive. The task one is helping O with would be marked with du.

Kadde and kadde-kadde take all the appropriate auxiliaries. Additionally, the form kadde-seje ‘finish a task’ is attested in addition to the expected kadde-tetta ‘stop or finish a task’.

The derivation of kadde is unknown.


[#103] Bodo teneto takataka yana yedi, bodo kadde-deye-dullo dodu mede banape noyeke yeleke.

[#36] Callotoda, yennadana ŋene goli sede sede dullole, dodu kadde kadde nolemona gohogoho nune callo canno sede dullodanace.

[#77] Cewadu gehe kadde telloja.”

[#85] Gehe kaddeja mowadu, no!”

[#37] Hadahada wusu ŋehetepene sedetoda, kiŋi nune kaddetoda deyewa wosodu.

[#20] Jede kadde sedetosana yisenasana.

[#22] Jede kadde tellotoda Peyada.

[#70] Jidi yedenakena ŋene jede kaddedana yedenadana.

[#81] Kadde kadde nosa cewadu.

[#76] Kadde tetta telloja.

[#82] Kuno kuttasamona wudu yedenamona, jede kadde tetta deyesamona cewane.

[#104] Lohosa kadde-noyetosa.

[#107] Lohosa kadde-tettatosa.

[#90] Xosape yedenadana deyedana, xotoyidedu jede kaddedana wosape.

[#108] Yekeke Wududa kadde-noyetoda.

[#101] Yekeke Wududa Lohosa sodo kadde-sedetodana bodo tene takataka yana yedi.