Clitics can attach to the end of various word classes. Most can attach to more than one type of word.

These clitics can attach to multiple types of words:

  Verb Noun Modifier Other
=go similar to V similar to N similar to M  
=hono V to a great extent big N much M  
=yisi V to a small extent little, young N not much M  
=keya   having N having M having CLS
=tepe fail to V lacking N lacking M lacking CLS
=lolo increasingly V   more M  
=tata decreasingly V   less M  
=niki   N and associates   PN and associates
=tani story evidential story of N    
=ya nominalizes V unpossesses obligatorily possessed N    

Those clitics that attach to classifiers are treating the classifiers as generic nouns.

Object Marker

If the object of the verb is a rational noun or a reference to a rational noun, then the object marker =va attaches to the final word of the object.

Relative Marker

The relative marker =pa attaches to the end of the argument it is relativizing. It is easily distinguished from possessive marker pa= as it always appears at the end of the noun phrase.

The common argument between the main clause and the relative clause is marked by =pa in the main clause and a pronoun (maya 'who', daya 'what', usuya 'when, where') in the relative clause. The common argument need not be repeated in the relative clause if it is obvious, like the subject of an intransitive verb.


List of Clitics