Ditransitive Verbs

Verbs inflect for tense and evidentiality. The two tenses are non-past (NP) and past. The evidentiality distinctions are firsthand (FH) for evidence personally seen, sensed, or done, non-firsthand (NFH) for evidence not seen, sensed, or done, and a zero evidentiality form for imperative, interrogative, and various subordinate clauses. Furthermore, negative verbs never take FH evidentiality, only NFH or zero.

Verbs also inflect for subject using one of the pronominal proclitics. Verbs can optionally carry a suffixed verbal enclitic.

Ditransitive Verbs have three arguments, the subject (A), the object (O), and the second object (E), usually a beneficiary. Since A always exists as a pronominal clitic, it is often omitted as a separate noun phrase. Ditransitive verbs can use =da for a passive when elevating O to the subject, or =dava when elevating E. It is more common with ditransitive verbs to passivize by elevating E, since E is more likely to be a rational noun.

List of Ditransitive Verbs