Clauses and Clause Structure

Motion Particles

The primary predicates in Kenda Soro are a set of twelve particles that convey how their subject moves. These particles, called motion particles, take only one argument, the subject, and so are all intransitive. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are all single syllable, they attach directly to the end of their subject forming a single phonological word subject to phonological rules.

ra (go)

The motion particle ra conveys motion to, from, or towards a location or on a path. Its subject is the person or object in motion. By itself, it is usually translated as "go" or "leave".





She left.

Ra is usually accompanied by at least one other argument: an attained destination marked with =s,

Maras lira.

maras lira

mara=s li=ra

home=LOC 1SG=GO

I went home.

a destination that is not yet attained marked with =du,

Naludo tuvora.

naludo tuvora

nalu=du tuvu=ra

fire=GOAL bird=GO

The bird went towards the fire.

a point of origin of the motion marked with =nda,

Yozonda kera.

yozonda kera

yozo=nda ke=ra


We left there.

and/or a path along which the motion is happening marked with =za.

Tonoza nara.

tonoza nara

tono=za na=ra


They went along the path.

Additionally, if the motion is being caused by another entity, that causer, if included in the clause, is marked with =ya if rational and animate or with =nda otherwise.

Saya sakanda mede sonos oloŋira.

saya sakanda mede sonos oloŋira

sa=ya saka=nda mede sono=s oloŋi=ra

3SG.RA=CAUS mountain=SRC tree top=LOC cloud=GO

She made the clouds go from the mountains to the tree tops.

Urenda sakanda mede sonos oloŋira.

urenda sakanda mede sonos oloŋira

uri=nda saka=nda mede sono=s oloŋi=ra

wind=SRC mountain=SRC tree top=LOC cloud=GO

The wind made the clouds go from the mountains to the tree tops.

Less tangible entities can also go or be made to go:

Naya liye tene satanda pezes garanen piŋera.

naya liye tene satanda pezes garanen piŋera

na=ya liye tene sata=nda pezi=s gara=nen piŋi=ra

3PL.RA=CAUS 1SG all body=SRC away=LOC water=COM pain=GO

They washed the pain from all of my body.

Saya lidu lugora.

saya lidu lugora

sa=ya li=du lugu=ra


She helped me.

no (come)

The motion particle no is the equivalent of ra, but the motion is towards a being with greater or equivalent animacy. By itself, it is usually translated as "come" or "arrive".





She came.

Since no involves something coming to an entity of higher animacy, it is the particle to use for sensing, feeling, and thinking. The being that is sensing, feeling, or thinking is marked as an attained destination with =s.

Sarunos pezes yutonda seleno.

sarunos pezes yutonda seleno

sa=runu=s pezi=s yutu=nda sele=no

3SG.RA=eye=LOC away=LOC campfire=SRC light=COME

They saw light from a campfire in the distance.

Peyas koyo yeredo kuŋino.

Peyas koyo yeredo kuŋino

Peya=s koyo yere=du kuŋi=no

Coyote=LOC this game=GOAL desire=COME

Coyote desired to play this game.

Ŋono zeye layisenahiza kenes delino.

ŋono zeye layisenahiza kenes delino

ŋono zeye layi=se=na=hi=za kene=s deli=no

more dark sky=STAY=START=POT=PATH woman=LOC idea=COME

The woman thought that the sky would start to become darker.

This usage for sensing persists even if the entity being sensed is of higher animacy than the senser.

Isaras lino.

isaras lino

i=sara=s li=no


It heard me.

lo (up) & ta (down)

The motion particles lo UP and ta DOWN are the equivalent of ra, but the point of reference for the motion is the ground. UP is away from the ground and DOWN is towards the ground.

Mede yaha satas salo.

mede yaha satas salo

mede yaha sata=s sa=lo

tree smooth body=LOC 3SG.RA=UP

She climbed up the smooth trunk of the tree.

Nara zales kines luŋeta baŋibaŋi.

nara zales kines luŋeta baŋibaŋi

nara zali=s kini=s luŋi=ta baŋibaŋi

one night=LOC land=LOC star=DOWN unexpectedly

One night a star fell to earth.

Zolo hata diriŋi.

zolo hata diriŋi

zo=lo ha=ta diriŋi

SG.IN=UP 3SG.IN=DOWN of.course

What goes up must come down.

Less tangible entities can also INCREASE and DECREASE. These entities have to already exist in order to go UP or DOWN.

Lamana layisena, lamana tene selese, zeseyelo.

lamana layisena lamana tene selese zeseyelo

lamana layi=se=na lamana tene sele=se zeseye=lo

hidden sky=STAY=START hidden all light=STAY darkness=UP

The sky started to be hidden, all the light was hidden, and the darkness increased.

ka (touch)

The motion particle ka involves motion plus contact, with an emphasis on the contact. The location or object contacted is marked as an attained destination with =s.

Narunukavas naduronda rusurusu eka.

narunukavas naduronda rusurusu eka

na=runukava=s na=duronda rusurusu e=ka

3PL.RA=eye.socket=LOC 3PL.RA=eyes repeatedly 3PL.IN=TOUCH

They caught their eyes in their eye-sockets.

Attempted contact is marked with as an attempted or not yet attained destination with =du.

Uduridu koro vubire taka dimidimi haka, rusurusu haka, satana.

uduridu koro vubire taka dimidimi haka rusurusu haka satana

uduri=du koro vubire taka dimidimi ha=ka rusurusu ha=ka sa=ta=na

air=GOAL boy bare arm with.force 3SG.IN=TOUCH repeatedly 3SG.IN=TOUCH 3SG.RA=DOWN=START

The boy's bare arms hit at the air repeatedly, and he began to fall.

Since the emphasis is on contact, this particle is often used to express holding or grasping. Since it is the hands that are grasping, and fingers have length, the particle =za is used instead.

Erenaza saka, liyenen yeremeto.

erenaza saka liyenen yeremeto

eri-na=za sa=ka liye=nen yere=me=to


He grabbed the spirits and the game with me stopped.

And from there it is no stretch to use ka for possession or control, again with =za.

Kozos ŋono pobomoza ŋono pideza ŋono pereteza ŋono muroza saka.

kozos ŋono pobomoza ŋono pideza ŋono pereteza ŋono muroza saka

kozo=s ŋono pobomo=za ŋono pidi=za ŋono perete=za ŋono muru=za sa=ka

here=LOC many spear=PATH many basket=PATH many knife=PATH many mat=PATH 3SG.RA=TOUCH

In there he had many spears, many baskets, many knives, and many mats.

ki (by)

The motion particle ki involves motion deliberately past a location. The location or object bypassed is marked as an attained destination with =s even though it is never attained.

Gareke lires naki.

Gareke lires naki

Gareke liri=s na=ki

Gareke island=LOC 3PL.RA=BY

They bypassed the Gareke islands.

As an extension of this sense of no contact, ki is used for the negation of grasping, having, or possession.

Teneteneza Minoka tezes, uduriza saki gutus.

teneteneza Minoka tezes uduriza saki gutus

tenetene=za Mino=ka tezes uduri=za sa=ki gutus

everything=PATH Mino=TOUCH left air=PATH 3SG.RA=BY right

On the left hand, Mino holds everything, on the right, he does not hold the air.

vi (out)

The motion particle vi involves motion outwards in more than one direction simultaneously. Thus, the subject of vi has to be something emittable or spreadable: a gas, liquid, sound, sensation, or abstraction. Since speech is primarily sound, this particle is often used for speech. The destination of the emission or audience of speech is marked with not yet attained marker =du. The content of the speech is marked with the path marker =za. The instigator of the speech is marked with =ya since speech is what marks rationality in this language. Otherwise the source of emission is either =ya or =nda depending on animacy. Finally, the attained destination marker =s can be used when the subject of vi is spreadable. Then =s marks the thing or area over which the subject is spread.

The example below uses vi first with an emittable noise and second with a spreadable abstraction:

Tabuninda indaya rinive, samas rinirinive.

Tabuninda indaya rinive samas rinirinive

Tabuni=nda isi-na=ya rini=vi sama=s rinirini=vi

Cottontail=SRC child-PL=CAUS laughter=OUT 3SG.RA=LOC mockery=OUT

Cottontail’s children laughed, they mocked him.

me (into)

The primary meaning of the motion particle me is of multiple people or objects coming together to do an activity or to create something. The creation or activity is the actual subject of me. The source of the creation, the material, is marked with =nda.

Saya zimivina, zimenda kerekeremena.

saya zimivina zimenda kerekeremena

sa=ya zimi=vi=na zimi=nda kerekere=me=na


They started to sing, and from the song they started to make magic.

ŋi (move)

The primary meaning of the motion particle ŋi is motion in place or internal motion. So, moving a limb, shaking, trembling, breathing, are all conveyed by ŋi.

Saya ranarana sekoteŋe.

saya ranarana sekoteŋe

sa=ya ranarana sekota=ŋi

3SG.RA=CAUS shaking sekota=MOVE

He shook the sekota tree.

Since animate things breathe and move on their own, ŋi is the motion particle to use when saying something about an animate or rational animate being, such as expressing an identity, group membership, or an attribute.

Linda tili arenda tili bese saŋi.

linda tili arenda tili bese saŋi

li=nda tili ari=nda tili bese sa=ŋi

1SG=SRC past grandmother=SRC past uncle 3SG.RA=MOVE

He was my late grandmother’s uncle.

Poto liŋiye, muros dahidahi liŋi, morono.

poto liŋiye muros dahidahi liŋi morono

poto li=ŋi=yi muru=s dahidahi li=ŋi moro=no

sick 1SG=MOVE=CONT mat=LOC lying.down 1SG=MOVE dream=COME

While I was sick, I lay on the mat, and a dream came.

The argument particle =s conveys location (an attained destination is where one is currently located), =nda conveys an origin or location from, and =za conveys location near. The particle =du does, as expected, convey location towards. This allows for multiple extensions of meaning: =du as "like" and =du as a means of directing one's sensory organs and actively sensing a scene.

Tuvonda atuvuza tuturadu Dedaloŋi.

tuvonda atuvuza tuturadu Dedaloŋi

tuvu=nda atuvu=za tutu=ra=du Dedalo=ŋi

bird=SRC flying=PATH lesson=GO=GOAL Dedalo=MOVE

Dedalo was like a bird giving a lesson in flying.

Pezes yalata zara Nuvu sazarudu luŋi sareŋe.

pezes yalata zara Nuvu sazarudu luŋi sareŋe

pezi=s yalata za=ra Nuvu sazaru=du luŋi sara=ŋi

away=LOC dying PL.IN=GO Nuvu voice=GOAL star ear=MOVE=CONT

The star listened to Nuvu’s voice, which was dying away.

The phrasal particle =nen can also be used with ŋi to convey behavior, speech, feeling, or thought.

Sadu gehevanen yaŋi!”

sadu gehevanen yaŋi

sa=du geheva=nen ya=ŋi


Be good to her!”

Korodo rondonen sovoŋe, "Ikaro, aŋene tonoza direhe.

korodo rondonen sovoŋe Ikaro aŋene tonoza direhe

koro=du rondo=nen sovo=ŋi Ikaro aŋene tono=za di=ra=hi

boy=GOAL advice=COM father=MOVE Ikaro middle path=PATH 2SG=GO=POT

The father gave the boy advice, "Ikaro, go via the middle path.

se (stay)

The primary meaning of the motion particle se is non-motion or staying in place. However, only inanimate nouns can truly be non-moving, and so se is used to express something about inanimate entities in the same way ŋi is used for animate ones.

Nuvonda yutu selese.

Nuvonda yutu selese

Nuvu=nda yutu sele=se

Nuvu=SRC campfire light=STAY

The light was Nuvu’s campfire.

Sama basa sonose, sama karu vususe.

sama basa sonose sama karu vususe

sama basa sono=se sama karu vusu=se

3SG.RA bad head=STAY 3SG.RA rough tongue=STAY

He had a bad head and a rough tongue.

pe (fail) & vu (not)

The primary meaning of the motion particle pe is failure to move, or failure to reach the attended destination. This particle functions as the negative of ra, no, ka, and ŋi, and with the addition of the adverbs oloyo (upwards) and atada (downwards), it also negates lo and ta.

Linda sorodo erena sarape baŋibaŋi.

linda sorodo erena sarape baŋibaŋi

li=nda soro=du eri-na sara=pe baŋibaŋi

1SG=SRC word=GOAL spirit-PL ear=FAIL unexpectedly

But the spirits did not listen to my words.

Saya ranarana sekoteŋe, sadurunu atada hape baŋibaŋi.

saya ranarana sekoteŋe sadurunu atada hape baŋibaŋi

sa=ya ranarana sekota=ŋi sa=durunu atada ha=pe baŋibaŋi

3SG.RA=CAUS shaking sekota=MOVE 3SG.RA=eye.DU downwards 3SG.IN=FAIL unexpected

He shook the sekota tree, but his eyes did not come down.

The motion particle vu acts as a negation of se.

Lidu ese, kegevenen mape vekeve yendodo evu.”

lidu ese kegevenen mape vekeve yendodo evu

li=du e=se kegeve=nen ma=pe vekeve yele-na=du e=vu


They are for me and not for lazy people who do not work.“